It’s been exactly 25 years since I began a business that is like your marketing in management. I started on October 1 of 1990. That’s when I began to study and back, then, of course, I had no idea what I will study. What I am supposed to study or what these studies will provide me or give me what kind of opportunities I will have. Well, now I’ll try to do that for you. Today’s lecture will have the following topics first. I will discuss some foundation courses, then business core courses, then business specializations business extensions. it’s all about the business study.
Because I’ve had over 15 years of teaching experience in education problems, how in why business programs mostly fail around the world, and then I’ll have a short conclusion for you. I understand that I have about 45 to 50 minutes to present this and maybe 15 20 minutes for questions and discussion. Now I did not originally know, and I want to make it very clear that today.
I talk about business education, and I will talk specifically about global business. Global business is very different from Global Studies. As Global business is a small field of Global Studies. Global Studies will include politics. It is willing to include global or international law. It will include culture, cultural anthropology. Global Studies is very big; I’m focusing first only on business basics. Businesses are taught in business schools around the world. So we’re business beginners. What is the foundation of business, in other words? What do you need in terms of background to begin understanding business? The two areas that you need to understand are quantitative methods.
Quantitative methods mean math and economics. You need to understand basic economics before you can do any business studies. So lets a little bit about each. If you’re a business student, you want to take basic quantitative methods. And usually, we separate these quantitative methods in two subjects, or two areas, the first air is just business math is standard math.
Which is used mostly in business? There is nothing very special mathematics in a broad field. You’re going to study only those specific things that are common use in business. Of course, accounting finance in general, so that’s business math. I think you are already or have already taken a business math course.
The second one that you do is business statistics, and business statistics are about analyzing and interpreting data, usually in the real world. You will see a lot of data may be interest rates over many many years. Maybe exchange rates over many years, maybe economic growth. Or if you want to look at economic growth. You may try to relate the economic growth to investment or economic growth to consumption or economic growth.
In the case of Korea with exports, so statistics will try to tell your basic relationship, let’s say, in the case of Korea, most important for the economic growth of Korea. Is it consumption, or is it an investment, or is it exports? You may have many different theories, and you may guess many different things. But with statistics, you can get the data you can analyze. You can try to discover relationships, and based on the data, you can conclude. Which is more important or which is the most important factor in other words in business statistics. Have you already studied basic statistics, or will you have studied already? Basic statistics will tell you these relationships.
The second foundation before you begin real Business Studies is economics. if I have the next slide and economics is divided into, of course, over 15 different fields. You have let me just read to microeconomics and labor economics you have International Economics, yet international trade international finance you have labor economics. You have many different fields in economics. In general basic economics, which we sometimes call principles of economics or introduction to economics, includes these two fields microeconomics. Microeconomics you need these to understand general business microeconomics concerns.
The behavior of individuals. The behavior of consumers and the behaviors of families. Then how families get a job their income? How families spend their income? How much they spend on food? And how much on cars. How much on housing, in other words, how families make economic decisions. The economic decisions are about making money and spending money and, respectively, investing money in other words what you do with your money. So that’s microeconomics. The second part of microeconomics is about the businesses you look about one business how the business implies manage Microeconomics tells you how much labor how much workers to employ how much capital to employ possibly.
To ensure a little bit of money and how much to borrow. Then it tells you how much to produce how to price your product. In general, the main concern for firms is how to maximize profits about business. It is about making money is about making profits in microeconomics focus is on how to make maximum profits. Which usually boils down to how much to produce and sell and at what price microeconomics is about.
The general economy is about production and output. We call this GDP (Gross Domestic Production) is about labor is employment. We call these jobs it’s about, are there a lot of jobs or a future next one is about wages are the jobs well paid or poorly paid.
The next thing is about the interest rate is the cost of capital, so macroeconomics concerns about labor in the cost of labor and capital. In the cost of capital, the cost of capital is interest rates, and macroeconomics is concerned about exports and imports. It is concerned about the most important price in the economy. The most important price of the economy is the price of money. We call the price of the money exchange rate. How much the Korean currency exchanges for Chinese currency for US dollars for Japanese yen or European euro. So macroeconomics again is concerned about employment and wages about business output in business prices.
In other words, business profitability about MP exports imports and exchange rates This is what macroeconomics is all about, so these are the foundations before you need to specialize. Further, into business, this is the background next. If you study or when you study business, you study four main areas. We can also call them four main fields. Or the four main subjects, the four fields are accounting finance marketing and management. I’ll discuss each one of these. Now accounting is the language of business that is translating business activity into numbers. Therefore, those numbers can everyone understand.
The trick in accounting is that you, as Koreans, can read European business accounts. You can interpret and understand them. I’m having studied in the US and come from Bulgaria can read Korean accounting statements and understand what they mean. How we interpret them, so let’s talk about each of these accounting is separated. Sometimes they call it principles of accounting; sometimes, they call it an introduction to accounting. The accounting field generally separated into two major sub-areas.
The first one is called financial accounting. The second one is called managerial accounting. You need to learn and understand both this is the foundation for every business. Financial accounting is how you make the accounts and how you report them. How you report the accounts, we call these financial statements to the owners of the business to the government to investors to bankers to creditors, in other words, This is the account that designed for people outside the firm, and it is highly standardized. We have, and now almost all the whole world uses.
What’s called international accounting standards. We use them in Bulgaria, they are all used of course in Thailand. They’re used in America everywhere in Europe. I’m pretty sure you in Korea and I know for sure Japan’s using them China. Now introducing them so that the statements are done here as well as there and everywhere in the world.
In the same way, you read them the same way you make them. The same way you interpret them. The same way, so that’s financial accounting. It gives you a balance sheet with assets and liabilities. You may also read 7 Succes stories from the small business
It gives you an income statement with revenues expenses in profits, and it gives you cash flows. How money is coming in and how money is going out. So that’s the financial accounting, and managerial accounting is accounting designed to serve the needs of management. That management can make decisions. These are going to be internal reports. They’re going to be used by the CEO and CFO, the marketing manager. The production manager they’re going to be used to see what the costs are, what is the cost of a product, how we price a product. How much to produce how much supplies to order. It will include budgets.
It will include all of those things. Managerial accounting is accounting for managerial purposes and managerial purposes of how management makes the decisions inside the firm This is standard accounting for outsiders, and this is whatever management needs for decision-making. You need to study accounting first before you study finance. Before you study management before you study marketing and before you study any other things except, of course, math in economics. You do math and economics first. Then the third subject is accounting. You can do financial accounting, and possibly maybe you could study marketing or management in parallel.
Next is finance. In finance, the focus is on the money. Finance is the subject of managing money, the subject which commonly taught. It’s usually in all business school is called financial management. In financial management is exactly that how you manage money how you manage business money. Sometimes this course is called in many business schools corporate finance. Incorporate finance is, how you manage money for big corporations in other words. If you let’s say do accounting books or finance for Samsung. It’s a major corporation you need is corporate finance.
Financial management and corporate finance are about 90 percent of the same corporate finance. Corporate finance has stuff specific to big corporations. You generally need financial management. In financial management is how you manage the assets of the company. How you manage the liabilities of the company. The most important part is how you manage investments, how you make investments. When you invest. You need to make a proper calculation to find out. Is the investment profitable or not? Profitable what’s the return on investment.
Finance is the focus on investment, but not only. Financial Management Study is about financing. Financing means how you get money. Do you get it by a bank loan? Do you borrow money from the bank? Or do yourself bonds. In other words, you borrow money from the bond market. You sell the stock, which is you raise money from investors. There are certain optimal ratios; it’s not good to take too much debt in very little capital. But it’s not a good idea to have too much capital in very little debt. There is some optimum balance. Financial management will do this for you. Some business schools will usually have only one financial management course.
But most business study schools will have two financial management courses. Sometimes there are smaller call them fundamentals of financial management. Which cover maybe 15 or 16 chapters. If the school is very good, in very hard, they’ll cover all fifteen chapters in one semester in 15 weeks. It’s hard, but they keep doing it in most business schools around the world. What may mean most students cannot handle 15 chapters in 15 weeks. Usually financial management they cover in the first semester eight chapters. The first eight and in the second semester they cover the other eight chapters. It’s a little bit easier, so the big subject separated in part one in part two.
Finance is about again. Investments next one are marketing. In marketing again is about the customer. What the customer wants what the customer is willing to pay. Marketing is about the product what the customer wants again what product they want. Do they want a big screen or they want a small screen? Do they want a heavy mobile with a large battery or them to want it very slim very light? But battery life is no good. What the customer wants that’s the product. The next thing is the price. How do we price it?
If it’s similar, let’s say to Apple iPhone. Should we price it above? Do we price it below? Do we price it at Apple iPhone? In other words, you need to think about the competition. You need to think about your customers. The product and the features of the product the price you need to think about the competitors. What the competitors are offering is also need to think about service. The very important thing is customer service. Especially for some customers.
Product and Customer Services
Especially for customers of products that you need. A lot of services, like cars, need a lot of services. Maybe phones don’t need it so much service anymore. Therefore this is all marketing. Sometimes marketing is one huge textbook, and it just goes half and half sometimes. Marketing two is usually separated as advertising now from the previous screen. I think I forgot that sometimes financial management Study is separated as a separate course called investments. Instead of two, you get investments for marketing instead of marketing.
They just call it advertising and you learn all the tricks about advertising. Advertising is about making the customer like to want and to eventually buy your product against advertising campaigns and promotions. All other things that will make the customer buy your product, so that’s what marketing is about. The next one is management not necessarily the last one management again is about how businesses make decisions. Decisions are about planning. How do we plan how much we’re going to produce how much we’re going to order. How many people we will need the management of people’s got a special name it’s called a Personnel Management.
Personnel Management considered very important and usually instead of having management. They’ll separate and have a whole subject called Personnel Management. Management is let me repeat about planning. It’s also about organizing how we’re going to organize what departments. We’re going to have when a marketing department in the finance department and accounting department. In the production department and a personnel department. In a legal department and IT or computer technology department so what kind of departments we’re going to have. Management is about leadership how to lead people on how to manage people how to organize people. One of the most important parts of businesses is how to motivate people. Of course how to reward people what kind of salaries what kind of vacations you’re going to give them.
All the other thing is necessary. Finally, management is about control is going to put a camera and watch the people are they going to have a card every time. They walk in they slide their card; in other words, you keep track of their time are they going to give you weekly reports monthly reports annual reports. In other words, how you control how you make sure that you achieve your goals how you make sure that employees do their job appropriately. That’s what management is about in these four fields.
Accounting finance marketing and management consist of the core. Once you got the core the main education. There’s one more. Once you get the core, the big want to get the core. The capstone is the most important, the most difficult course, the course that requires understanding. All others for understanding accounting and finance and marketing and management are called strategic management.
Strategic Management is how you compete are going to compete on efficiency are going to compete on price are going to compete on a better product are going to compete on a variety of products. You know the basic thing that you can think the simplest and easiest. That you can understand is how Samsung Galaxy will compete against the iPhone is going to be a bigger screen better Valarie battery. Whatever the floors are going to be a different operating system. More free software, in other words, how you compete. It’s also how you innovate your products. Okay, so all of this is called a capstone.
Capstone means the top means the most important, the one which builds on all the others that’s the capstone course. Let’s see specializations once you have your core you can specialize in. There are four primary specializations. You can specialize in accounting and those that specialize in accounting are simply going to take four or five or six more accounting courses. In other words, you take the basics of accounting finance marketing management. Then you focus on accounting you’re going to do after.
Introductory Accounting is to do intermediate accounting. Intermediate accounting is hard. The textbook is like 1,500 pages. It’s a killer. Oh, that’s why accounting people get or make a lot of money. It’s very hard a lot of accounting majors just fail on intermediate accounting. So they take it year-long two semesters after they do accounting sorry intermediate financial accounting. They’ll do cost accounting, and cost accounting will go in a lot more detail of managerial accounting, how we determine costs, and all the other tricks related to the cost inside the business, not with the businesses about revenues and expenses.
Cost accounting focuses on expenses. Only that’s it you’ll do some auditing. All the thing is trying to check and verify if your accounting is good is proper. It’s correct if there is cheating if there is a fraud if someone’s stealing money. Or if someone called cooking the books, in other words, they’re lying and cheating trying to mislead you methods the management or external people. So that’s what Auditing is, and of course, you have nonprofit institutions. You also have government institutions.
Government Accounting is a little different. Nonprofit institutions are also a little bit different. They are not run for-profit, so there has a separate accounting of their own and just not to mislead you. There may be more one two three four more courses. But if you take business and you have a field, usually four or five extra courses are enough to have the field similar to finance. You can take financial management too, or you can make investments, or you can do Financial Economics. Another learn worth learn about financial markets.
Financial Institutions financial instruments you have separate ones called financial derivatives This is very advanced, very difficult, very sophisticated. You may have a separate course about that if you specialize in finance and, of course, risk management. How you manage your financial risks or operations and production risk.
Risk management includes a subfield of insurance. If you’re a big business, how you insure your different risks. Well, first of all, which are your risks you need to know your risk. You need to understand your risk. You need to measure them in the last piece. So You need to manage them or insure them with marketing again. Maybe you have many different courses. You can specialize in advertising take a separate course on advertising. You can get a separate course on sales okay. A lot of people in marketing they just do sales like a car salesman or phone salesman. Whatever you’re selling. You could be product design.
How do we make it better how do we make it more user-friendly? What do they like you know that’s a product design and of course marketing management. How you manage the marketing operations and there could be a bunch of other marketing courses with management. First, how we manage people, it’s called Personnel Management. How we manage inventory called inventory management. How we manage the marketing. Marketing management’s very popular course is supply chain management.
How would you manage the supply chain? There is another course sometimes in here a separate class called operations management how you manage your business operations. Whatever you’re doing okay, you may be leading a hotel or a restaurant or a car manufacturer. Of course, any other management to summarize business specializations. These are the four main, the four primary specialties after you’ve done. Your core, you take four or five of these within one specific area. Then you specialize in those. There is an alternative specialization, which is instead of accounting business specializing. It could be specializing in its international business study right; this is what you’re.
I understand doing, and there is no difference between saying international business and global business. International Global means the same, so if you’re studying in your case. Maybe a global market, what do I think is excellent comprehensive business education. How do we structure it well, very simple you will have or should have a course in International Economics, in other words, the first course we had microeconomics. Macroeconomics now you’re going to get international trade and international finance, so International Economics deals with global business and finance. A subject which is very important for an export-oriented country like Korea again.
The next course in accounting. You’re going to get an international specialization accounting. How you do accounting for we call this global accounting, considering for a company that has global operations in many different countries, how you took the accounting of five different countries and put it all together. How you deal with currencies and currencies going up and down in other words. Accounting for global corporations is a little trickier, and you learn those tricks here. Similarly, you take finance and finance for global corporations.
We call these multinational corporations has their tricks that have their complications. You just name it international finance. How you manage the finances of multinational corporations similarly with marketing not with you take each of the four core courses. Accounting and into international accounting finance get global finance marketing. You do global marketing in management. You know International Management, and I would think maybe not necessary. But it’s beautiful, it’s delicious, and it’s beneficial. If you do an extra course, international law.
If you’re doing business understanding, at least some law is helpful is nice. It’s essential, so this is my view of how I would structure an international. The international business program, of course, you can add more courses in international politics and all sorts of other things. But this is the basics now what other extensions you may have. What is not what you’ve done your core you’ve done. Our specialization but if you want to get a little further and there is usually time in a business school. You may study some programming languages, especially important is to learn at least one statistical programming language. In other words, you have much statistical software.
The statistical software usually has basics of non-basic, meaning some simple programming language. That you can learn how to program statistical software, so learning some programming languages is very helpful. Especially statistical type languages, there are many statistical packages, maybe one or two of those is desirable. The next is database systems. It always helps to know and understand database information is what you need to manage and make decisions, and information usually stored in databases. Understanding databases and database systems are always helpful, not necessary. But it’s a good idea.
Well, one way that done or another little broader subject which usually done in most business schools in the world is called MIS management information systems. The part of the information system will include, of course, database systems, but it will consist of secure connectivity. It’s going to add whatever is related to technology. The technology using in businesses. It’s a reasonably helpful course to have, and it’s a separate you may have web systems or internet systems. How to use the internet for marketing management or whatever the things are that you may do and, of course, in general.
I’m talking about also universal languages, whether it’s English, which is today the language of all businesses around the world. Of course, tourism now the rising star is Chinese Japanese has always been popular and possibly more exotic Arabic. These are business extensions. You may have a business extension in law.
You may study a little bit further law like an introduction to law. It’s nice to have it’s also beneficial to have business law again. It’s not part of the core, but it’s a nice extension you may have individually contract law. How to make and manage contracts this one is tricky because contract law in Japan is going to be different from Korea different from China different from Bulgaria different from America.
Contract law is not the same around the world and maybe some international law so you may extend into the area of law. I’m trying now to summarize I’ve already discussed all of these things is a simple table that you’re having you may have within the field. You’re going to have let’s say for an international business study what would you at least study is the basics. Well, for quantitative stuff business math and statistics, maybe you can take a third course, perhaps not. Perhaps you can take statistical packages, and mathematical programming is number three.
It’s not on there next for economics microeconomics. Macroeconomics and international economics include international finance and trade accounting, financial accounting, managerial accounting, and international or global accounting. I’m just putting it all together is only the same information in one table for convenience finance. Financial management may be financial management tools or investments international finance marketing, one maybe advertising or marketing to global marketing management. Management one personnel management international manager, and possibly for others, you may include some Mis or perhaps business law or maybe international law.
That’s again the core you can extend in different ways up to your choices or up to the goals of the university or the purposes of the administration let’s see what else we have. I should be okay; that’s my last section. Well, I’ve been teaching both Business and Economics for about 15 years in eight different countries. I’ve seen a lot of programs fail, or a lot of applications aren’t doing very well. A lot of programs are mediocre. Of course, some Pro programs succeed. What are the typical problems? What you have to be careful about or watch about, or what are the common mistakes number one. It’s straightforward weak foundations they study a lot of business. But they don’t know basic accounting. Well, they somehow research accounting. But don’t learn anything about the counting.
That’s the most common mistake they study accounting to pass the exam. They give the review, and they forgot about it; this known in education is the toilet flush. You know it’s a toilet, right? You know what’s flush students study study study study learn. When the exam comes they pass, they flush, and everything goes down. The toilet and they forget everything don’t remember anything anymore. Weak foundations don’t understand the necessary finance. That’s very common. They just say oh, I’m a marketing guy. I don’t need to know economics, and that’s a widespread mistake of thinking culture and mentality, especially of an 18 or 19-year-old kid. You know when you’re 30, say oh, I should have learned better accounting.
I should have learned better finance, so don’t underestimate the foundation. That’s the first one. The second common mistake and that’s very common I’ve seen it everywhere there are many fancy courses. The elaborate course is a course which sounds very lovely. It looks very modern; it’s got a little bit of contact content. But it’s not big enough. It’s not broad enough; they just feature a bit of this. That’s it like promotion strategies, and that’s a whole course. Well, that stuff you study for a week or two so instead of another. Let me emphasize focusing on the foundations in the core. They provide a lot of short courses that only look at a few things.
The third one which I’ve seen a lot and I mean a lot almost everywhere, is a few course chapters. They study accounting in the study five chapters oh five sections are not enough studying five chapters you’re not going to learn a lot of accounting. You’re going to learn some, but it’s little when I was studying at one University. We teach finance students to study four chapters in financial management in one semester. Then four sections in the next semester. Well, how far you’re going to go, so than financial management one two three and four and for two years. They study one textbook that has 16 chapters. Well, that’s not exactly a good education; there was a textbook that taught in one or two semesters. You spread over four semesters you need to cover, on average, about ten chapters per semester.
Whether its marketing management accounting good universities will typically cover 15 in bad universities will cover or seven. But teaching we’re studying three four or five chapters is a joke and that’s very common around the world. The next one which I’ve seen is too many projects. It’s like the marketing teacher loves to give students a project right, so it gives them a plan, but the management teacher also gives them a project oh and the finance teacher gives them a project. Then suddenly every teacher gives them a project and the students like I have five, five projects. They’re doing the project copy the projects, and they forgot what they’re. They forgot that they must sit and learn and understand.
The learning is not very important; it’s about to make the project delivery. The project and, of course, with the projects come presentations. Students focus on a ten-minute performance, so the whole semester they study to make a ten-minute presentation all right?
In general, that’s the fault of the organization, the same thing heavily weighted projects. Heavily weighted plan means the project is fifty percent of the grade and again. When it’s 50 percent, do you have similar courses now? Here you got a course, and half of the class is on the project. Well, when half the grade is on the project, the students focus on the project, and they ignore the other stuff. If you get the project well, then you make your presentation. You’re going to get most of your grade. You don’t have to study the rest. Well, that’s a common design problem well, it designed to make students pass quickly and easily in student’s pass, and they get good grades. But they don’t learn much, and it’s not about learning.
It’s not passing the grades and making it easy for students. Well, it is not necessarily good. Let me see what else, yes, same thing poor and easy exams again this is mostly a fault of the professors, and of course, the last one is everyone’s passing nobody is failing. If you know that you’re not going to fail because we don’t fail anybody, the result is. You don’t study much. Let’s see what else because I’m running out of time. These are very quickly. Maybe you use many of these. The most common one is call memorizing.
You sit, and you memorize right before the exam the night before the exam you do this now in Thailand they don’t study the night before the exam. They studied the morning before the exam, so the example is 11 o’clock they started at nine at 10 o’clock quickly. They come in the review. You don’t learn a lot from memorizing and cramming. Usually, whatever you learn in the afternoon, it’s all forgotten, okay. The next one is studying from PowerPoint; widespread students loved PowerPoint. Then they just read the PowerPoint and said you could not get an education from PowerPoint. PowerPoint is not mean for a study PowerPoint is intended for presentation to make performance more accessible.
But you can’t study you can’t get an education from PowerPoint, of course not reading the textbook. Most students around the world, especially in poor, what meaning low-quality business study programs they don’t understand the book. Well, if you want to learn you must read, it’s simple as that the only way to learn is with good reading. You need to train your skills to understand to analyze and all the other things you’re just thinking. If I listen to the lecture if I take notes, no, you need to read the book, not enough exercises this applies mainly to accounting. Accounting needs exercises for each chapter. You need to solve five or ten problems. The very important, next one is big group exercises they give you a task, and they put six people in the group.
What happens is one student works in the other one play the phone or chatting or talking, or you know that’s. That’s a group should be two people at a maximum three four or more is usually one or two the students don’t work that much. That’s the same thing as group free writing. Freewriting is you get the benefit without doing the work. Suppose the four of you work on the same project, and maybe two or three work hard, and one will don’t work hard. Of course, too much fun too much party that’s already known too much internet too much Facebook chatting.
Now I’m asking my students in Kyllo how much time you spend on average on Facebook four hours well when do you study well you know where I might put on a lot of time to consider okay so too much fun and another one study for grades only you started just to get a well. That’s you know you don’t need that in classes it’s not as important it’s the knowledge about understanding the business, and finally, I’ve seen it a lot. I don’t know why, but it’s a problem more of an Asian phenomenon as opposed to European or American kids go to business.
Because mom and dad think it’s a good idea, so mom and dad want you to study business you go and research the market to make parents happy, maybe you don’t care about business. Perhaps you like I don’t know drawing or painting or photography or art or history or something else you like. But you don’t go to study what you like. You consider what your parents want you to explore; this makes for poor motivation students are not motivated to go.
let me try and finish before can all right conclusion business study is generally not comfortable people think it’s easy. But it’s not there are too many business programs everywhere around the world. The field is competitive and may be in a career more than 100 business programs in general. I mean I know in Thailand there are 100 I know in Taiwan for 100 so you must be right. Because if you’re not good, someone else will be and will have a job for you, and a lot of times, students underestimate reality. Oh, they just want a little bit of marketing. I’m okay, well, the short answer is you’re probably not going to be okay, so most students fail to mean they graduate they didn’t learn much.
What they do they go for a master’s degree just waste more time. The next one most students when they graduate they can’t get a job meaning they can’t get a good, well-paying job. Yes, they get a job, and they become a bartender. They get a job and become a secretary but again, do you study for four years in business to be a secretary or to be a bartender or to be a waiter okay or to be a hotel receptionist, and the answer is no. We don’t study for four years for that. But that’s what most people do. I heard it, and I’ve been in many countries the same thing oh there are no jobs when we graduate.
I heard, especially this in Bahrain, they said oh there are no jobs that don’t matter what in the short answer is no there are plenty of jobs. But the jobs are only for skilled peoples, so it turns out that especially. When I was teaching in Bahrain but in other places for the right students, let’s say. I have a class of fifty, maybe six or seven will be top students these six or seven will already get a good well-paying job waiting for them. The others don’t have a job at all. In other words, for the right students, there is always a good, well-paying job, and for the poor students, there are simply no jobs. I would like to conclude by wishing you good luck in your business education, and we have a little bit of time if you have any questions.
Maybe you have some questions please comment in the last of the post.
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